SEMP1182 Ti. Sempronius (53) P. f. Ti. n. Gracchus


  • Nobilis Expand

    Gell. 12.8.cap-4, Auct. Vir. Ill. 57.1

Life Dates

  • 220?, birth (Rüpke 2005)


grandson of
? Ti. Sempronius (51) Ti. f. Ti. n. Gracchus (cos. 215) (Zmeskal 2009)
son of
? Ti. Sempronius (51) Ti. f. Ti. n. Gracchus (cos. 215) (Zmeskal 2009)
brother of
? Ti. Sempronius (52) Gracchus (son of? Ti. Sempronius (51) Ti. f. Ti. n. Gracchus (cos. 215)) (DPRR Team)
? Ti. Veturius (23) Gracchus Sempronianus (son of? Ti. Sempronius (51) Ti. f. Ti. n. Gracchus (cos. 215)) (DPRR Team)
married to
Cornelia (407) (daughter of P. Cornelius (336) P. f. L. n. Scipio Africanus (cos. 205)) (Zmeskal 2009) Expand

Cic. inv. I 91, Pol. XXXI 27 (XXXII 13)

father of
C. Sempronius (47) Ti. f. P. n. Gracchus (tr. pl. 123) (Zmeskal 2009) Expand

Cic. de orat. I 211, Cic. de orat. I 38

Ti. Sempronius (54) Ti. f. P. n. Gracchus (tr. pl. 133) (Zmeskal 2009) Expand

Cic. de orat. I 211, Cic. de orat. I 38, Vell. II 7.1

Sempronia (99) (daughter of Ti. Sempronius (53) P. f. Ti. n. Gracchus (cos. 177)) (Zmeskal 2009) Expand

Cic. Lael. 101


  • Augur 204 to after 153 (Rüpke 2005) Expand
    • Liv. 41.21.8-9. (Broughton MRR I)
    • Ti. Sempronius Longus became both Augur and Decemvir in 210, but when his death is reported in 174 (above) he is Decemvir only, and a Ti. Sempronius Gracchus is named as the Augur that died. He may be the Ti. Sempronius Gracchus who became Augur in 204 and is otherwise unknown (RE, no. 52), but it is difficult to believe that anyone, including Longus, ever left the augural college since appointment was for life and was not lost even for great crimes (Plut. RQ 99). Furthermore, the date when Ti. Sempronius Gracchus, father of the Gracchi and a summus augur (Cic. Div. 1.36), entered the college is uncertain, but must precede his second consulate in 163 B.C. (Cic. QF 2.2.1; ND 2.11; Div. 1.33, 36). If he was born about 220, as is generally held (RE, no. 53), he could possibly have been made Augur in 204. Carcopino{407} (Autour des Gracques 70) places the date of his birth about 208 but at best has only shown that it can hardly be later than 208; in fact, it may be considerably earlier in spite of the disparity between the ages of Cornelia and her husband. These considerations favor the acceptance of Bardt's (Priester, 18ff.) suggestion that the Augur who died in 174 was Sempronius Longus, not Sempronius Gracchus, and that the augurate of the latter dates from 204. There is no escape in any case from the assumption that there were two Sempronii in the augural college in this period. The law, quoted by Cassius Dio (39.17), prohibiting two members of the same gens from holding the same priesthood, was valid in 57, but the date of its enactment is uncertain. (Broughton MRR I)
    • Ti. Veturius Gracchus Sempronianus succeeded Ti. Sempronius (Longus or Gracchus). Ti. Sempronius Gracchus Veturianus, Geer, AJPh 60 (1939) 466f. (Broughton MRR I)
  • Legatus (Envoy) 190 (Broughton MRR I) Expand
    • Sent to Philip of Macedon by the Scipios to assure their passage to the Hellespont (Liv. 37.7.11-14). (Broughton MRR I)
  • Tribunus Plebis 187 (Broughton MRR I) Expand
    • The Antiate version in Livy dates Gracchus in 187. In accord with this he is also made to take part as Tribune in the dispute about the triumph of Fulvius (Liv. 39.5.1-6: collega). Nothing however that he does depends on his power as Tribune. The facts of his career permit him to be Tribune in 187 or in 184. He was perhaps away during 185 on an embassy to Macedon and Greece (see 185, note 7), but if so may have returned in time to be elected Tribune for 184, since Metellus is the only one of the ambassadors reported in Greece, see 185, Legates (cf. however Liv. 39.33.1 where the three legates are represented as reporting in March 184 after the new Consuls had taken office). The mistakes in dates and persons, and the telescoping of events in Antias' account justify placing the trial of L. Scipio after his games in 186 and probably in 184, when he was a candidate against Cato for the censorship (Liv. 39.40.2). See 187, on the Petilii. (Broughton MRR I)
    • According to the Antiate version Gracchus interposed his veto twice during the trials of the Scipios, first, to prevent a renewal of the accusation against Africanus (Liv. 38.52.3-53.7), and second, to prevent L. Scipio from being haled to prison (38.60.3-6; Gell. 6.19.8). Other sources, and the speech attributed to him, deal only with the second veto (Liv. 38.56.7-9; FOR 1.92-93, and 218; cf. Cic. Prov. Cons. 18; Val. Max. 4.1.8, cf. 4.2.3; Plin. NH praef. 10; Dic fr. 65; Auct. Vir. Ill. 57.1). (Broughton MRR I)
    • As a solution for the difficulties in the augural succession .in this period Badian (Arethusa 1, 1968, 31-33), following Mommsen, suggests excising as erroneous the phrase in Livy 27.6.15 Ti. Sempronius Ti. f. Longus augur factus in locum T. Otacilii Crassi, thus removing from this place in the college of augurs a Sempronius whose presence would result in the cooptation of another Sempronius, a Gracchus, in 204, during his tenure (until 174, Livy 41.21.8-9; MRR 1.282-283, 407, notes 4 and 5, 309). Livy reports this cooptation in 204 (29.38.7) of a Gracchus, admodum adulescens, and records the deaths, both of Longus and of this Gracchus in 174 (41.21.8-9). He lists as successor T. Veturius Gracchus Sempronianus, whom Geer (and I) proposed to rename Ti. Sempronius Gracchus Veturianus on the ground that the Veturii were patrician and only plebeian places were available at that time in the college of augurs (Geer, AJPh 60, 1939, 466-467; cf. MRR 1.405, 407, notes 4 and 5), and the name would then represent the adoption of a patrician by a plebeian. Badian points out the possibility of a line of plebeian Veturii descending from Veturius Calvinus (8), Cos. 321 (op. cit. 34), and defends the name as given in Livy, explaining the intrusive word Gracchus as either coming from his predecessor or representing the words Gracchi f. His place in the augural college would not prevent the cooptation of the summus augur, the consul of 177 and 163, and father of the Gracchi, at some date between 174 and 163. Sumner, noting that the Sempronius Gracchus who was an augur from 204 to 174 would in any case have reached the age for a praetorship before his death in 174 (""not old enough to reach high office and come to our notice,"" Badian 33), suggests that the notice of his death in 174 was a mistake: he was the consul of 177 and 163 and had been adopted by a Veturius to avoid having two Sempronii in the college at the same, time, just as Lentulus Spinther was adopted by a Manlius in 57 (Dio 39.17), and, like Lentulus, continued for ordinary purposes to use his original name (Orators 38-39; for other examples of continued use, see Shackleton Bailey, Studies, esp. 109, 113-114). Tr. pl. 187. Livy (38.52-60), with Valerius Antias as his source, places Gracchus' tribunate in 187. This date avoids the difficulty raised if, as I was inclined to hold in MRR, 1.376, 378, note 4, Gracchus was a member of an embassy to Greece in 185-184 (1.373, and 374, note 7). Scullard (Roman Politics. 142-145, 290-303) places the tribunate of Gracchus in 187, and with him his colleagues Fannius (6) and Minucius Augurinus (30) (1.375-376), and puts the trial of L. Scipio in the same year. In 184 the attack was directed against Africanus. This seems to me the best solution of the problem. Praetor and proconsul in Hisp. Cit. 180, 179-178. Founder of Graccuris (App. Ib. 43), and apparently also founder (deductor) of Iliturgis (A. Blanco and G. Lachica, AEArq 1960, 193-196; A. d'Ors, Akte des IV. int. Kong. gr. u. lat. Epig. 304-305; Acta 5th Int. Congress Gr. & Lat. Epig. 256, in answer to A. Degrassi, Epigraphica III-Scritti Vari 3.129ff., who notes that the lettering cannot be earlier than the late Republic). See also J. M. Reynolds, JRS 61, 1971, 139.[188x][189]" (Broughton MRR III)
  • Legatus (Ambassador)? 185 Macedonia, Achaea (Broughton MRR I) Expand
    • Livy reports this embassy under the year 185, but the appointment could have been made late in the consular year 186. I accept Niese's dating (3.22, note 1). They could leave Rome in the spring, visit Tempe and Thessalonica, and be at Argos for the Nemean games in August (Polyb. 22.10.1). (Broughton MRR I)
    • Polybius (22.6.6) gives Ti. Claudius as the third name, but Livy twice mentions Ti. Sempronius (39.24.13, and 33.1). The epitomator of Polybius may be at fault, but if Ti. Claudius is correct, Nero is a probable candidate. Geer (TAPhA 69 [1938] 385, note 10) is inclined to accept Claudius, but points out that Sempronius need not be the father of the Gracchi. Longus (Cos. 194) and the Gracchus who was Augur from 204 to 174 (but see 174, note 5) may also be considered. He seens however that the third member of the embassy should most suitably be a junior senator. If Gracchus was sent on this embassy we may suppose that he returned early to become a candidate for the Tribunate of 184 (Münzer). Krug (38) accepts Claudius. (Broughton MRR I)
    • Sent to deal with disputes between Philip of Macedon and his neighbors in Greece and with complaints arising from his occupation of Aenus and Maronea (Polyb. 22.6; 23.2.7; Liv. 39.23.5-29.3, cf. 33.1; Pausan. 7.8.6). They also discussed the Achaean treatment of Sparta with the Achaean magistrates, who refused Metellus' request that they call an assembly (Polyb. 22.10; 23.4.7; Diod. 29.17; Pausan. 7.8.6, and 9.1). (Broughton MRR I)
  • Legatus (Ambassador)? 184 Macedonia, Achaea (Broughton MRR I) Expand
    • They reported to the Senate at the beginning of 184 (Polyb. 22.11.1, and 12.5-10; Liv. 39.33.1). (Broughton MRR I)
  • Triumvir Coloniis Deducendis 183 (Broughton MRR I) Expand
    • Appointed to found Saturnia in the Ager Caletranus (Liv. 39.55.9). (Broughton MRR I)
  • Aedilis Curulis 182 (Broughton MRR I) Expand
    • The expenses of his games bore so heavily on Italy, the Latins and the provinces that the Senate decreed a limit to the expenses of future games (Liv. 40.44.12). (Broughton MRR I)
  • Praetor 180 Hispania Citerior (Broughton MRR I) Expand
    • Election Liv. 40.35.2 Provinces Liv. 40.35.8-9. (Broughton MRR I)
    • Opposed Fulvius' request to bring his army back from Spain (Liv. 40.35.10-36.5 and 8-12). Fought the Celtiberians at Caravis (Liv. 40.40.15; App. Ib. 43). (Broughton MRR I)
    • p. 733 (Brennan 2000)
  • Proconsul 179 Hispania (Broughton MRR I) Expand
    • Propraetor (Liv. 40.47.1) in Hither Spain, where after important victories over the Celtiberian tribesmen he made treaties and secured a considerable measure of reconciliation by his treatment of them (Liv. 40.44.4-5, and 47.1-50.5; Diod. 29.26; Polyb. and Posidon. in Strabo 3.4.13; Frontin. Str. 2.5.3 and 14; 3.5.2; 4.7.33; Plut. TG 5.3; App. Ib. 43; Flor. 1.33.9; Auct. Vir. Ill. 57.2; Oros. 4.20.32). (Broughton MRR I)
  • Proconsul 178 Hispania (Broughton MRR I) Expand
    • Proconsul in Hither Spain (Liv. Per. 41), where he received the surrender of the Celtiberi and made a treaty with them, and founded{396} Gracchuris (Liv. 41.26.1; Per. 41; App. Ib. 43-44, and 48; Plut. TG 5.3-4; Fest. 86 L). Returned to celebrate a triumph (Liv. 41.6.4, and 7.1-3; Per. 41; Act. Tr., Degrassi 80f., 555; Plut. TG 1.1). (Broughton MRR I)
  • Triumphator 178 (Rich 2014) Expand
    • Triumph de Celtibereis, Hispaneisque. MRR I.395-6, Itgenshorst no. 191, Rich no. 190. (Rich 2014)
  • Consul 177 (Broughton MRR I) Expand
    • Polyb. 25.4.1; Liv. 41.8.1; Fast. Cap., Degrassi 48f., 122, 458f. (reading [C. Cla]udius, etc.); Obseq. 8; Chr. 354; Fast. Hyd.; Chr. Pasc.; Cassiod.; on Claudius, Cic. Cael. 33; and on Gracchus, Cic. Brut. 79; Div. 1.36; Diod. 34.5; Plut. TG 1.1; App. BC 1.17. Claudius was sent to Istria, where after a dispute with his predecessors, he subdued king Aepulo and ended the Istrian war (Polyb. 25.4.1; Liv. 41.8.5, 9.3 and 8, and 10.5-11.9; cf. Enn. Ann. 421 V; Flor. 1.26, with praenomen Appius). He then crushed a revolt in Liguria (Liv. 41.12.3 and 7-10),{398} and celebrated a triumph over Istri and Ligurians (Liv. 41.13.6-8; Act. Tr., Degrassi 80f., 555). He proposed a law to restrict the migration of Latins to Rome (Liv. 41.9.9-12), and after holding the elections went to Gaul to drive Ligurian raiders from Mutina (41.14.1-3). Gracchus was assigned Sardinia, where he defeated an army of Ilienses and Balari (Polyb. 25.4.1; Liv. 41.8.3-5, and 9.1 and 8; 41.12.5-6). (Broughton MRR I)
  • Proconsul 176 Sardinia (Broughton MRR I) Expand
    • Pacified Sardinia, but against his request was compelled to remain for the year (Liv. 41.15.6, and 17.1-4; cf. Flor. 1.22, 35). (Broughton MRR I)
  • Proconsul 175 Sardinia (Broughton MRR I) Expand
    • Returned from Sardinia to celebrate as Proconsul his second triumph (Liv. 41.28.9; Act. Tr., Degrassi 80f., 555). (Broughton MRR I)
  • Triumphator 175 (Rich 2014) Expand
    • Triumph ex Sardinia. MRR I.402, Itgenshorst no. 194, Rich no. 193. (Rich 2014)
  • Censor 169 (Broughton MRR I) Expand
    • Liv. 43.14.1; Fast. Cap., Degrassi 50f., 123, 460f.; Plut. TG 1.1; 14.3; Fest. 360 L. They aided the levy for the Macedonian war (Liv. 43.14.5-10, and 15.7-8), revised the Senate list strictly and chose M. Aemilius Lepidus Princeps Senatus (43.15.6; 45.15.8), reviewed the knights and handled the letting of contracts with such severity that the Tribune Rutilius accused them of perduellio. Claudius was acquitted by a small majority with Gracchus' help (Liv. 43.16; cf. Cic. Rep. 6.2; Liv. 44.16.8; 45.15.8; Val. Max. 6.5.3; Auct. Vir. Ill. 57.3; Fest. 360 L). Gracchus built the Basilica Sempronia (Liv. 44.16.10); and in 168, though opposed by his colleague, restricted the registration of freedmen to one city tribe (Liv. 45.15.1-7; cf. Cic. De Or. 1.38). Their request for prorogation to complete their program of building and repair was vetoed (Liv. 45.15.9). (Broughton MRR I)
  • Legatus (Ambassador) 165 Asia, Cappadocia, Syria, Rhodes, (Broughton MRR I) Expand
    • Sent as head of an embassy, of which the remaining names are not preserved, to Pergamum, Cappadocia, Syria, and Rhodes to investigate the attitude of the various kings and states, and brought back a favorable report of all (Polyb. 30.27.1-4, 30.7-8, and 31.19-20; 31.1.1, and 3.4; Diod. 31.17, and 28; cf. Cic. Brut. 79). (Broughton MRR I)
  • Consul 163 (Broughton MRR I) Expand
    • Didasc. Ter. Heaut. Tim.; Fast. Cap., Degrassi 50f., 123, 460f.; Fast. Ant., ib. 160f.; Obseq. 14; Chr. 354; Fast. Hyd.; Chr. Pasc.; Cassiod.; and on Gracchus, Cic. Brut. 79; Div. 1.36; Inv. 1.48; ND 2.10-11; Diod. 34.5; Val. Max. 9.12.3; Plut. TG 1.1; App. BC 1.17; Gran. Lic. 11 (Bonn). Iuventius died in Corsica just after receiving news that the Senate had decreed a supplicatio for his successes (Val. Max. 9.12.3; Plin. NH 7.182), whereupon Gracchus, after holding the elections, succeeded him in Corsica and Sardinia (Cic. QF 2.2.1; Auct. Vir. Ill. 57.2; see 162, Consuls). (Broughton MRR I)
  • Legatus (Ambassador) 162 Achaea, Asia, Galatia (Broughton MRR I) Expand
    • This embassy probably left late in the year, for Gracchus not only served several months in Sardinia but was in Rome when Scipio made the payments on his sister's dowry ten months after Aemilia's death (Polyb. 31.27.7-16). (Broughton MRR I)
    • After Demetrius' escape to Syria, these were appointed to examine the condition of Greece; and in Asia, to observe the result of Demetrius' action, the attitude of the other kings, and to settle their disputes with the Galatians (Polyb. 31.15.9-12, and 32-33; Diod. 31.28). (Broughton MRR I)
  • Proconsul 162 Sardinia (Broughton MRR I) Expand
    • Returned from Sardinia before the end of the year to become a Legate (see below, Legates, and above, Consuls). (Broughton MRR I)